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CHAPTER II

CHEMICAL  PRODUCTS

The products here treated of are the principal ones of the inorganic and
organic chemical industries. Indications are given more particularly of
the methods for their evaluation and for the detection of the commoner
impurities.

The name of each product is followed by the chemical formula and the
atomic or molecular weight referred to 0 —16, according l;o the inter-
national atomic weight table for the year 191:4.

The products are arranged alphabetically. It must Ins pointed out that
certain other chemical, products arc dealt with in other chapters (sec Index
at end of Vol. II).

ACETONE
CaH00 = 5»'<>5

Colourless liquid, of peculiar odour, miseible with water, I) .•••• u•?()(>(]
at 15°, b.pt. 55-56°. It may be contaminated with free acids, acetone oil,
tarry matters and water, but is usually very pure. The tests to bo made fi,ru
the following :

1.  Density and boiling point—by the ordinary methods.

2.  Acidity.—Test with   blue   litmus   paper;   any   acidity  may  be,
determined by titration with   dceiuormal   caustic soda,  in  presence   of
phenolphthalein.

3.  Fixed Residue.—20   grains are evaporated on a, steam-bath ;   no
residue should remain,

4.  Solubility, Moisture........-Acetone, should dissolve in all proportions

in water or in light petroleum boiling at 40'-60°.   Turbidity with water
indicates the presence of acetone oil or tarry matter.    If drops of water
separate at the bottom when the acetone is mixed with light petroleum,
water is present.

5.  Tarry Matters.—5 c.c. of the acetone are treated with a drop of
0-1% potassium permanganate solution; the liquid should remain red for
at least 15 minutes if the acetone is pure.

6.  Aldehydes.—TO c.c. of the acetone are treated with 10 c.c, of dis-
tilled water and 2 c.c. of ammoniacal silver nitrate solution (j grams AgN()3)
3 grams NaOH and 20 grams of ammonia solution of I)   =0-9, made up to
100 c.c. with water) and left for 15 minutes in the dark.    If there is reduc-
tion, the filtered liquid is tested with ammonium sulphide ; if a precipitate
is formed, the proportion of aldehyde does not exceed o-i.%

16nly faintly